From: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001, R. Tong, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. In our society, men hold considerable power over women. Pornography is a systematic practice of exploitation and subordination based on sex that differentially harms women…. Though the feminist perspective focuses on diversity and liberation, it has been accused of being incompatible with multiculturalist policy. It is best understood as both an intellectual and a normative project. They believe that gender equality can be brought by ‘transforming the division of labour through the repatterning of key institutions- law, … Feminist Theory. The feminist perspective also criticizes exclusive understandings of sexuality, such as heterosexism. Write two paragraphs answering the following questions: What is What Is An Argument In Critical Thinking Slideshare feminism? (Dworkin and MacKinnon, 1988: 33). However, from a multiculturalist perspective, such traditions must be respected even if they seem to directly violate ideas about freedom or liberty. Many modern nations collectivize some of the costs of rearing children, through public financing of education and health care. Moralists’ objections to pornography on the basis of its appeal to prurient interests differs radically from the feminists’ concern on pornography’s effects on women. Without this state involvement, and the sort of cultural change that cultural feminists advocate, women are likely to leave care work as other opportunities open up, or those who remain in it will pay a high price (in foregone wages) for doing this work. Feminist theory and research on the sociology of human reproduction have historically been bound together as each has developed. Over the years, feminist demands have changed. The radical and cultural feminists argue that traditionally male values are inappropriate for human behavior by either men or women in either domestic or public roles, at least without greater balance from traditionally feminine values than currently obtains. Difference feminism is an approach to feminist theory where different feminists have different views on sexuality, gender, class and race (Lloyd 5). The feminist perspective also recognizes that women who suffer from oppression due to race, in addition to the oppression they suffer for being women, may find themselves in a double bind. Although the forms and ways in which it has been practiced differ between cultures and change significantly through history, its persistence has led to the formulation of the concept of patriarchy. Feminist theory is a major branch within sociology that shifts its assumptions, analytic lens, and topical focus away from the male viewpoint and experience toward that of women. One possible consequence of multiculturalism is that certain religious or traditional practices, that might disadvantage or oppress women, might be tolerated on the grounds of cultural sensitivity. Examples of traditionally male characteristics highly valued in our culture include independence, abstract rationality, and repression of emotion. Key to patriarchy is what might be called the dominant gender ideology toward sexual differences: the assumption that physiological sex differences between males and females are related to differences in their character, behavior, and ability (i.e., their gender). Sex, these feminists contend, is the primary means by which men exert power over women. It is not just the constitution of the ‘political’ which has been found to be problematic but also the very constitution of categories inherent to feminism such as ‘woman.’ Difference between women has been emphasized. In the meantime is it to be understood that the principles of the Declaration of Independence bear no relation to half of the human race? Gender relations are viewed as a problem: the site of social inequities, strains, and contradictions. Not surprisingly, these issues are also reflected in debates over feminist political practice. Currently, a third wave of feminism is criticizing the fact that the first two waves of feminism were dominated by white women from advanced capitalist societies. When feminists argue for a valorization of women's traditional virtues and roles, this is often confused with advocating a return to traditional roles. Feminist sociology focuses on analyzing the grounds of the limitations faced by women when they claim the right to equality with men. Because of this micro level study, feminist theory is sometimes grouped with symbolic interactionism. Respecting traditionally female work is entirely consistent with this work being shared by men. The liberal view that all forms of speech should go unregulated does not recognize that the power men have over women to define them in pornography has silenced women’s voices. She asked, What are the common features of women’s everyday lives? For example, there are major debates over whether feminist strategies should revolve primarily around cultural issues of ‘recognition’ or whether the battles should be over issues of economic ‘redistribution.’ There are also debates over whether feminist politics has revolved around ‘states of injury’ which government has then been called upon to redress, rather than upon more empowering political strategies (Brown 1995). The ‘feminine’ programs support single mothers when a male breadwinner isn't present; the programs were seen to compensate for family failures. (See Feminist Theory: Ecofeminist and Cultural Feminist; Feminist Theory: Radical Lesbian) In their view, the sexism in our society is not just a failure to give women the preparation to live up to the proper standards, or to judge fairly whether they meet these standards. Rather, there have been evolutions of the different frameworks under the broad heading of "feminist theory" since the late 1700s. Part of the issue was sociology itself. If the culture values and rewards traditionally female characteristics, why would it make sense to teach these things only to girls or save these roles for women? Neil M. Malamuth, in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition), 2008. Contesting the valuation of these characteristics over traditionally female characteristics, these feminists ask why patriarchal and liberal views have elevated the spiritual or rational (which they associated with men) over the physical or emotional (which they associate with women)? It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality, and examines women’s social roles , … These differences are used to justify a gendered division of social roles and inequality in access to rewards, positions of power, and privilege. Bec… Feminist Theory, cont’d • Elaine Unterhalter (2005) notes that a fundamental debate exists between how cosmopolitans and communitarians frame discussions around ethics, international relations, and development policy. Although largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests. Within the feminist movement there are a variety of perspectives on the subject of pornography that will not be discussed here. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA See all articles by this author. A fundamental charge of feminist scholarship in general is to emphasize the validity of women’s experience in the social world (Sydie, 1987). One example is research associated with the policy issue known as comparable worth. Women's subordination is now as likely to be seen as being due to the continued influence of gendered binary linguistic categories as being due to more materialistic factors such as the gender division of labor. theory that feminist social science should be practiced from the standpoint of women, https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter1-an-introduction-to-sociology/, https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/412/sociology-1/theoretical-perspectives-in-sociology-24/the-feminist-perspective-158-7930/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standpoint_feminism, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHPOLSywdi0. Instead, only the radical feminist position will be discussed and whenever the term feminist is used it will refer to this position and it should be kept in mind that it is by no means representative of the feminist community generally. 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