In scientific terms, we could say that the object appears to be ‘displaced’ from its starting position. Unlike Earth’s atmosphere, the Sun’s gets hotter the farther from the surface you measure it — until the end of the corona, where the cold of space cools things down. Sailing down from the North Pole, the Pole Star would get lower and lower in the sky. Royal Observatory: GCSE Astronomy. Consider this diagram: On any of these worlds, hypothetically speaking, if you looked to the sky at night, you’d see the other planets (including Earth) travelling the same path as the Sun. Meteoroids may possess some iron-nickel content. Literally, a hole in the fabric of space left by a giant star (at least ten times the mass of our Sun) which has collapsed at the end of its life. Based on current knowledge, we’ve dated the Universe at about 13.8 billions years, although many astronomers are unsatisfied. How is Earth’s atmosphere beneficial to humankind? The ‘ball’ is the nucleus; a compact gathering of rock fragments, dust particles, water ice, and frozen gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Today, the Hubble Space Telescope is named in his honour. Corona  =  2,000,000K (increases dramatically). The Solar System samabrhms11 2019-11-27T14:50:47+00:00. — Verified Purchase. And finally, sailing beyond the equator, the Pole Star would set… with stars you’ve never seen before rising to take its place. You may be relieved to know that GCSE Astronomy doesn’t require you to perform any calculations using the Drake Equation. It also explains what the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram is. Assuming these same events occur elsewhere occasionally, then it’s only logical to conclude that other intelligent life must come about occasionally. However, the video refers to miles per second rather than kilometres. Breaking it down, we’re given Saturn’s distance (r) as 9.5 AU. In sum, dark matter surrounds and penetrates us, binding our galaxy together. 8 Resources. In other words, if you time a planet going around the Sun, it matters not whether that planet is close to the Sun (so moving fast) or far away from the Sun (so moving slow), it’ll always cover a fixed amount of area within a fixed amount of time. Computer room with latest version of Stellarium installed required. Astronomy (S284) starts once a year – in October. Uranus You could also mark a big piece of flat card using a pencil. With a telescope, you can enjoy grander views from your own backyard. More precisely, the Sun is 400 times larger in diameter than the Moon, although its size is mitigated by its distance:  400 times farther away. It shows the wrong way to build a sundial, using stones and a shadow stick to mark the hours. But using the stick ensures that you identify your local noon precisely. Indeed, private money is now being pledged to fund a manned Mars mission by the early 2030s. Just like Top of the Pops, bright stars have low numbers. Centuries of observation have confirmed the validity of this 11-year cycle. Thus, you should expect some questions about sundials in the exam. This may seem like a complex way to determine stellar distances, but we cannot extend a tape-measure to the stars! PowerPoint 1 . In fact, the Moon does have an atmosphere, but it’s so tenuous as to be negligible. Like a planet, the Sun rotates on its axis. You may be surprised to know that even today, groups of people exist who believe and passionately argue that the world is flat! In the image below (captured by Hubble), every point of light is a galaxy! I watched with a mix of awe and fear. The brightness detected by our eyes (viewing the stars from Earth) is known as the ‘apparent’ magnitude. Plus, the build-up of heat could melt or warp your telescope. If your subject has a red link, it means we do not yet have any GCSE revision notes for that subject - why not start off that subject by adding your own notes? As an interesting aside, there is growing support for the hypothesis that a star of 30 solar masses (or greater) might not explode at all. For this discussion, I’ll visualise the number of sunspots starting low, building high, then gradually returning to low again. A hydrogen atom has one ‘proton’ in its nucleus. — In the exam, you could be shown a constellation and asked to label its stars according to their brightness. The atoms and molecules ‘de-excite’ by emitting that extra energy in the form of light. Its diameter (that is, the distance from one side through to the other) is approximately 3500km. If we could look behind the Sun during the day, we’d see whichever constellation it happened to be in alignment with. — Don’t try to memorise the factors word for word. Absolute and apparent. Asteroid Hunting. Asteroid Hunting. This results in a stable and predictable shadow, which isn’t affected by the Sun’s apparent drift. British Horological Institute . Very big! — Drawing a straight line between these points gives you half a compass, like so: If you’re ever lost in the wilderness, this simple experiment will help establish a compass for you to navigate by. Moreover, star charts would be cluttered and difficult to use if every star had a name that needed to be printed alongside it. But that’s not the end of the story. What is meant by a “constellation?” — HR Diagram. Also what is GCSE astronomy- I've never heard of this at any other school? The supplementary video has information on spectroscopy. GCSE Astronomy Practice Exam (4) Name of Student; _____ Total Score Percentage (%) GCSE Grade This is a 2 hour exam. — But we know they exist due to their effect on nearby matter — which can be observed. Astronomy GCSE. Extracts from this document... Introduction. Hence, the Sun has much to teach us about the life and behaviour of all stars, and we’re fortunate to have it in our cosmic backyard. Work Sheet 2. The supplementary video has more information on magnitudes. Then Google:  “period-luminosity law.”. Are sunspots permanent features of the Sun? This site contains everything that you need to know about the Edexcel astronomy GCSE course. As long as you can explain the equation in general terms, you’ll do fine in the exam. What is the Messier Catalogue? Topic 1. Assuming an abundance of H2O molecules there, plus an appropriate atmospheric pressure, such a world could sustain liquid water on its surface. November 30, 2016 December 1, 2016 Dickie Murt. If you wanted to sound technical, you could say that the equation reconciles apparent solar time with mean solar time. — — [including basic microbial life], fi = However, the water in this particular comet was much “heavier” than that found on Earth, which also tends to go against the theory. To see a video about rearranging formulae on the Maths Tidbits page, Click Here. Time is measured in years. A black hole exerts the same gravitational pull as the leftover core of the exploding star that created it. These particles are flying away from the Sun in all directions. Edexcel GCSE Astronomy Past Papers. But is there a way to tell whether any other stars are circumpolar? Any comet or asteroid that will pass within 0.3 AU (45 million km) of Earth. Hopefully, this will emphasise the correctness of the second clip, which explains things properly. We know that CO2 is produced by volcanoes. That may seem a vast distance (and it is! If, comparing two photographs, a star has jumped significantly after six months, that star must be closer to Earth than one which jumps minutely (or not at all). This technique has verified that the Moon is receding from Earth by 3.8 centimetres each year. fraction of those planets capable of supporting life? Specification Point 7.1P. Its diameter (distance from one side through to the other) is approximately 1.4 million kilometres. Remember that declination is simply latitude (up/down) “projected onto the sky.”  See the video in lesson 13 for more on this. This collection has been compiled to provide teachers with a comprehensive set of ready-made teaching and learning resources to help them to plan and deliver Edexcel’s GCSE Astronomy specification for first teaching from 2009. Here they are at-a-glance: What is the period of the lunar phase cycle? Question book. What are exoplanets? The following resources will provide all that is necessary to pass the Unit 1 examination with a high grade. Professional, long-exposure photographs capture the majesty of this spectacle:  our galaxy, viewed up close and side-on. Nteach GCSE Physics P1 - Electromagnetic Spectrum $ 1.31 (5) Bundle. First of all, don’t panic! You can keep up-to-date with their findings via Google, and by reading these quality magazines: Sky at Night 6 Resources. — What is the Moon’s rotational period, and orbital period? — PowerPoint. However, if you’re always up late watching the sky, you won’t do so well in your GCSE Astronomy exam! Absolute and apparent. On Earth, we’ve discovered microbes which lie dead still and shrivelled in dry conditions; yet, add a drop of water and they suddenly spring to life. Time and further investigation will tell. A worksheet to introduce the students to Practice Using Stellarium. Read more. The greater a star’s apparent displacement after six months, the closer to Earth that star must be. Access and download, syllabi, notes, applets and videos. However there is still the requirement to complete two Observational tasks, one for the unaided (year1) and one for the aided (year 2). — Also, rock samples from the Moon are similar to the rock found in Earth’s mantle, yet significantly lacking in water molecules — suggesting that heat from a giant impact may have vaporised the water. A lump of rock, hurtling through space at around 40 kilometres per second, whose size can range between that of a sand grain to several metres across. Bear in mind that in 1961, when Drake put forward his original formulation, astronomers were yet to prove the existence of exoplanets. Try it! — By contrast, the highlands are mountainous, highly cratered regions, light-grey in colour. To date, most of our Solar System exploration has been via space probes, landers and robotic rovers. Therefore, I’ll just provide a summary of each man’s contribution to current understanding. Learning ‘one’ and ‘two’ is easy:  the word “alphabet” itself comes from the Greek for one and two… alpha and beta! Since that time (and even before it), space probes have analysed the far side, transmitting data and images back to Earth. QUESTION 2: There are 88 constellations in total. These telescopes have another advantage over optical ones:  the Sun makes no difference to them at all! The ‘parallax effect’ is obtained by looking at an object from different positions — or by viewing it with one eye, then the other. A list of 110 ‘fuzzy’ objects, many of which are just visible to the naked eye. — thermal or electrical activity. They come in different shapes. What are some of the difficulties and dangers? In the exam, you could be asked for firm evidence that the world is round. Eclipse. Gravity & Weight samabrhms11 2019-11-27T14:42:52+00:00. Search for GCSE Astronomy … To compound our worries, humans are systematically destroying trees and plants, which do a miraculous thing for us:  they take in harmful CO2 and put out precious oxygen. Well done if you noticed that this is 2.2 days longer than the orbital period (27.3 days). Thankfully, Earth has far fewer volcanoes and is much less volcanically active. The stars are suns, but far away. As described above, when a comet approaches the Sun, it heats up — evaporating and leaving behind a trail of gas and dust. Long-exposure photographs, like the one below, which reveal “star trails.”. Two coursework assignments. Consequently, sizzling jets of matter (and radiation) are blasted outwards in a continuous stream — ejected from above and below the black hole. About 6 trillion miles (9.5 trillion kilometres). Starting with dangers, the most obvious is that of fire and/or explosion, mainly due to the vast quantity of rocket fuel needed to break free of Earth’s orbit. These are bursts of high-energy radiation sweeping through space, which can have a mutating effect on biological cells. Boosting magnification allows individual features to be seen up close. The red/copper effect is less pronounced during a partial eclipse, since less of Earth’s shadow and atmosphere align with the Moon. Ready to print on a double-sided A3 sheet, they are perfect for research sessions with the odd demo and video thrown in! Craters are the result of countless impacts by meteors, asteroids and comets over the eons. What is the temperature of the Sun’s photosphere? On first glance, this may seem like pure guesswork. The closest planet to the Sun is Mercury; yet, it’s not the hottest. — Well, let’s begin with the basics. The cycle takes 11 years, although you must always be clear about what stage in the cycle you’re counting from. fraction of those planets where life achieves intelligence? Following from the First Law, an imaginary line connecting a planet and the Sun will “sweep out” equal amounts of area in equal amounts of time. Our moon is named “The Moon” (capital ‘M’), although there are many moons to explore in our Solar System. What is the shape and diameter of Planet Earth? What were the aims of the Apollo Space Programme? – Several other moons/planets are covered in impact craters; The greatest genius of all, Sir Isaac Newton, would later use their work as the basis for his own, declaring:  “If I have seen further, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants.”  This statement is true, even if Newton’s modesty was false! Many such rocks are believed to be dropping all around us, constantly. This is known as the distance modulus formula. However, with the exception of radio astronomy, other types of advanced astronomy must occur in space, or at higher altitudes within Earth’s atmosphere. GCSE resources with teacher and student feedback. What is meant by a “galactic red-shift?” — You don’t strictly need a shadow stick to work this out. This collection has been compiled to provide teachers with a comprehensive set of ready-made teaching and learning resources to help them to plan and deliver Edexcel’s GCSE Astronomy specification for first teaching from 2009. Meanwhile, on the (thinner) near side, lava often seeped through cracks; filling craters, giving the near side an overall smoother, newer appearance. What are the possible consequences of a PHO impact? But remember:  to be sure of leaving a black hole in its wake, a supernova must result from the death of a giant star, at least ten times the mass of our Sun. So what’s the point? How far is one parsec? More precisely, the core has a temperature of 15 million Kelvin. Folders of support material include: additional study notes on newly-introduced topics, more than 60 pupil worksheets, observational skills, study and revision aids, and over 300 objective questions covering the complete Edexcel Astronomy specification. This also applies when using a telescope or binoculars. PowerPoint 2 . Home Past Papers Revison Moon Calendar Links Videos Contact. We’ve also sent probes chasing after comets! Water, Water, Everywhere… October 18, 2016 November 22, 2016 Dickie Murt. Unit 1: Understanding the Universe 75% weighting This includes four topics that closely match the previous specification: Earth, Moon and Sun; Planetary Systems; Stars; Galaxies and … Click here for detaisl Introduction to GCSE Astronomy Hello, and welcome to our GCSE Astronomy website. There are two types of cluster:  open and globular. It’s an impressive trick when your backpacking buddies are losing their minds — panicking because they can’t get a phone signal, while the sat-nav’s battery just died. Many ‘green’ initiatives are now being pursued, but it may be too-little-too-late. What are the main physical characteristics of the planets? What do galaxies look like? SKU: ISBN 978 0 9956483 0 2 Categories: Astronomy GCSE, Astronomy Learning Resources, Astronomy Pupil Toolkit, Astronomy Teaching Toolkits, Edexcel, GCSE … — Year 2018. – M104:  The Sombrero Galaxy. A solar day is noon to noon, just as a synodic month is New Moon to New Moon. To see a PARTIAL solar eclipse, you must be standing in the ‘penumbra’ — that is, the diffuse outer shadow cast around the umbra. So, a PHO is also an NEO, but an NEO isn’t always a PHO! All that remains is the hazy glow of the Sun’s corona. – Its atmosphere is 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% trace gases. An active galaxy is powered by matter falling into a supermassive black hole located at its centre. Simply a meteoroid that touches down (as opposed to burning up) after surviving the blazing hot, high-friction fall through Earth’s atmosphere. The rotation period is divided into 360 degrees (a full circle), with 1 full degree of rotation occurring every 4 minutes. Astronomy facts - Der Favorit unter allen Produkten. A proton is a positively charged particle. Britain’s latitude is approximately 55°N, so Brits see the Pole Star 55° above the northern horizon. A body known as the International Astronomical Union (IAU) is responsible for naming constellations. Home > GCSE > Astronomy > astronomy notes. Please make sure that you are following the correct syllabus by checking this page.There was no content change in the syllabus since 2009 although the exam became linear in 2012 (1st sitting 2014). So, for example, the Orionid Meteor Shower occurs each October; it radiates from a point near the constellation Orion. How does the atmosphere of Venus illustrate global warming? You could also be asked to examine a graph like the one below, in order to predict (e.g.) It said something astonishing. A similar rule governs the apparent movement of the Sun across our sky. Created by: Katie789; Created on: 13-03-13 19:13; astronomy notes Word Document 2.7 Mb. This results from looking into the disc of our galaxy from a side-on perspective. GCSE (9-1) Astronomy – A Guide for Pupils and Teachers (5 th edition) ISBN 978 0 9956483 0 2. No. How long does it take to orbit? But remember:  the star’s motion is apparent, not real. The CMB radiation does more than cause space to glow; it heats the void to an average temperature of 2.7K above absolute zero. What does the term “mean Sun” refer to? It’s important for you to realise that “star trails” are due to our planet spinning on its axis. 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